"The spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility.", is a definition of poetry compiled by William Wordsworth aka 'Poet of Nature', written in the Preface of the book Lyrical ballads. He was born at Lake District or Northern England on 7th April 1770 and died on 23rd April 1850. This book is a collection of poems by him and Samuel Taylor Coleridge and considered as the root of Romanticism in the English Literature. It was published in the 1798,1800-2nd edition published in which he added a preface which included his theories about poetry. Moreover, the poetry formation process according to him staged more or less as first- overflow of powerful emotions stimulated by an object or a person or a situation; second - recollection in the tranquility of those emotions and third expressing it.
He shared his views on the subjects of the poetry also which were from ordinary life, the incidents and characters to be from the village and its vicinity and a contemplating mind should be there or a noticing of them and nature. On the other hand, diction was also explained to be of the language of the rustic people, for instance, the language of everyday life or the language used by rustic and humble men. Generally, avoiding rich conceits and grandeur of richness
His famous creations :
I wandered lonely as a cloud, Three years she grew- one of the lucy poems where a 3-year-old girl has been taken away by nature who decides to take care of her, Perfect woman, The blind highland boy, Heart-Leap well, the world is too much with us, The Prelude, The Forsaken, Her eyes are wild are few of his poems.
His Early Life
In 5 siblings, he was at number two. He lost his mother when he was 7 and father when at 13. All of the family was sent to grammar school at Hawkshead in a village that was in the heart of Lake District. Here, he realized how nature can be terrific as well as the one who nurtures.
The rhyming scheme of the poem is aabccb. It is written in the form of lyrical elegy.
Three years she grew
Three years she grew in sun and shower,
Then Nature said, "A lovelier flower
On earth was never sown;
This Child I to myself will take;
She shall be mine, and I will make
A Lady of my own."
(In these lines it is said that she [Lucy] grew for 3 years and then nature says that such a beautiful flower is never sown after knowing about Lucy and in the next lines it is said that nature will take her to herself; nature will take care of her. It concludes by saying that Lucy will be made a lady of her own or a special girl.)
"Myself will to my darling be
Both law and impulse: and with me
The Girl, in rock and plain,
In earth and heaven, in glade and bower,
Shall feel an overseeing power
To kindle or restrain."
(In this stanza, nature elaborates on what has been said in the first part by saying that nature will be there with her in a situation of law and impulse and the girl will be with her in rock, plain, Earth and heaven; in the open space in the wood; in shady place beneath the trees. She will also have a managing power to stop and start a process as nature does)
"She shall be sportive as the fawn
That wild with glee across the lawn
Or up the mountain springs;
And hers shall be the breathing balm,
And hers the silence and the calm
Of mute insensate things."
(In this part, nature is saying that she [Lucy] will be as sportive as the young deer that runs across the jungle in a high-spirited joy or towards the zeniths of the beautiful mountains during spring. She will own all the trees which breathe sweet fragrance and all the calmness or silences of the unconscious things.)
"The floating clouds their state shall lend To her; for her the willow bend;
Nor shall she fail to see
Even in the motions of the Storm
Grace that shall mould the Maiden's form By silent sympathy."
(In this stanza, it is said that she will be like clouds which wander. She is such a kind of person for which everyone will surrender or bend and now as she is a cloud, probably willow is bending for this reason. Moreover, even in the storm, she can figure out the grace in a maiden's (probably the storm is of the shape of a maiden or an unmarried woman) form who is molded by a silent sympathy or it is controlled by Lucy in the cloud's form.)
"The stars of midnight shall be dear
To her; and she shall lean her ear
In many a secret place
Where rivulets dance their wayward round,
And beauty born of murmuring sound Shall pass into her face. "
(In this stanza, it is said that the stars will be her friends and she will learn and hear about the secret places where moth dances like a drunk and the pleasant sound so created will be made to listen to her.)
"And vital feelings of delight
Shall rear her form to stately height,
Her virgin bosom swell;
Such thoughts to Lucy I will give
While she and I together live
Here in this happy dell."
(In this part, nature says, the vital feeling of delight will raise her form to a majestic height. Her authority will grow. She will get mature with all these powers of the world because she will be given these thoughts while nature and Lucy will live together in a gorgeous valley that spreads happiness. )
Thus Nature spake—The work was done—
How soon my Lucy's race was run!
She died, and left to me
This heath, this calm and quiet scene;
The memory of what has been,
And never more will be.
(In this final stanza, nature says that her work is done as Lucy has grown up and surprisingly says that how soon Lucy's race has come to an end or she has grown too fast. And then the poet says she died and left barren land, calmness, and quiet sceneries; he is left with the memory of Lucy whom he will not be able to see again in his life.)
The concept called Romanticism is displayed truly in this poem. His imagination criteria fill up with what has been written in the preface of the 2nd Edition of Lyrical Ballads. Moreover, the language is simple and sleek, the subject is nature and there is no exhibition of might or richness, but yes, of course, the caring nature has been portrayed elegantly using simple language.
Moreover, poetry is all about imagination but it teaches a lot. That's why many poets say only when they decorated their lines with the flight of imagination then only the science realized its goal, for instance, Chalo re chand ke par chalo or let's go beyond the moon probably gave an idea to explore the world.
Alexander Pope has been a dominating name across the age of the Augustan English literature era. In the poem, Ode to Solitude, he says he finds the solitude so fascinating that he wants to be in solitude forever and he goes to the extent of saying that he wants to die unnoticed. In this section, we will go through a brief introduction of the poet and his work; the age and a simpler explanation of the poem.
The Poet /satirist/ critic: Alexander Pope
His early life:
Alexander pope was born on May 21st in 1688 in London England and died on May 30th, 1744. His family was of Roman Catholics that made him make new friends and since Catholics were not admitted to the universities he was mostly taught at home by a Catholic Priest for a shorter time and attended catholic school at Tyford and Hyde. He made catholic friends like John Caryll who persuaded him to write The Rape of the locks and Martha Blount to whom he addressed some of his best poems and bequeathed his property.
The notable works included The rape of the lock and The Dunciad- these are mock-heroic narrative poems,Essay on criticism- it is a poem that covers a range of good criticisms and advice and a lot other things also and His translation of Homer. His other works are :
Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady, Eloisa to Abelard, Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,An Essay on Criticism,An Essay on Man,Fools rush in where angels fear to tread,Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus,Messiah (Latin poem),Moral Essays ,Ode on Solitude, Peri Bathous, Or the Art of Sinking in Poetry,Pope's Urn , The Temple of Fame, Three Hours After Marriage, Who breaks a butterfly upon a wheel?
Moreover, Augustian age(1700-1750) was a period of the reign of Queen Anne, King George I and II. The literature represented the worldview of the age of reason. The name mistakenly allocated to this age as George I wanted to name his might and the authors instead though it to be the goodies of the King Augustan era.
This era was marked by the writings that employed neoclassical forms such as elegance over brevity, reason over emotion, ode, moderation and emphasis on common sense and satire, prose, following nature, town and city life as the theme of literature; poetic diction and a heroic couplet. Pope's poetry dominated this age.
The reinvention of all forms of classical poetry to serve new functions.His poetry is satirical, didactic and intellectual. He used a heroic couplet with a style that was engineered by Geoffrey Chaucer.
The rhyming scheme is ABAB. It is an Ode which is a lyrical poem where a particular subject is addressed.
Ode to Solitude
Happy the man, whose wish and care
A few paternal acres bound,
Content to breathe his native air,
In his own ground.
(In this part, the poet is saying a man will be happy when he has a few acres of inherited land to live and work. He will be content when he has all these things. )
Whose herds with milk, whose fields with bread,
Whose flocks supply him with attire,
Whose trees in summer yield him shade,
In winter fire.
(These lines tell that he gets milk from the cattle, his fields give him food, his sheep supply him the clothes and in summer his trees provide shades and wood for the fire in winter )
Blest, who can unconcernedly find
Hours, days, and years slide soft away,
In health of body, peace of mind,
Quiet by day,
(He then says that he is blessed as time is no more an important entity for him, it is passing without making him worry. He is in good health and peace of mind; his days are quite which means he is stress-free throughout the day.)
Sound sleep by night; study and ease,
Together mixed; sweet recreation;
And innocence, which most does please,
(In this part the poet says that man will have a sound sleep. He can if he wants to work or study or leave, it is his choice and not forced by anyone. It is a desirable state of recreation. There is an innocence in his nature which will be liked by a lot of people and probably this is mediation happening by itself due to solitude. )
Thus let me live, unseen, unknown;
Thus unlamented let me die;
Steal from the world, and not a stone
Tell where I lie.
(In the final stanza, the poet says that as the solitude is a good idea, he wants to live unseen and unknown and without any rituals die. He wants himself to be stolen from the world, not the stone and then he asks where is he wrong if he is saying all these.)
Overall, we saw how the poem agrees with the thought process of the Augustan Era. The Odes have been written in the age of Emperor Augustus in Rome. As this is a revival of that period, we can see similar forms, but with different subjects. Moreover, this poem seems to present intellectual content and there is proper logic given to prove the point; there are also hints for the didactic aspects, for instance, when he is saying that the man has enough what is needed to survive without losing solitude in the second stanza, he is logically presenting ideas.
Hello! If you are wondering what drama is. It is an active form of literature and comes in the sphere of the same. It comprises dialogues, characters, setting, spectacle, music, movement, theme and the most important - plot which has generally three parts namely, exposition, rising action, climax and falling action which leads to the conclusion. In this section, we will see get introduced with the playwright- G.B. Shaw, his literary creations and themes. Moreover, we will be seeing a summary of all the acts of the play - The Arms and the Man which is written by the same playwright.
The Playwright: George Bernard Shaw
Born on July 26, 1856, Dublin and died on Nov 2, 1950, in England. He was the youngest and only son among three children of George Carr Shaw and Lucinda Elizabeth Gurly Shaw. His father was a civil servant and a grain merchanting where he got limited success thereby the whole family lived in poverty. He was tutored by a clerical uncle. He started working in the land agents office by 16. he rejected schools. His mom left her husband taking two daughters with her to London. Shaw later joined them in London and started learning there and resolved to be a writer. His family was poor and he depended upon the money which her mother earned. He used to spend time in the British Museum's reading hall and wrote novels and attended evening lectures and debates. His initial works got rejected in a line. However, during this time he found himself and became vegetarian, a spellbinding orator, a socialist, a polemicist, and a tentative playwright.
His famous plays
He is a noble prize winner for literature in 1925. A few of his famous plays are Man and superman - it is a four-act play written in 1903, Candida- was published in 1898, it is a comedy which questions the Victorian idea of love, marriage, and companionship and became extremely popular that the term Candidamania was termed to this phenomenon, Heartbreak house- in this play shaw adapts the style of famous Russian writer Anton Chekhov to comment on society and changing faces of people around us, Pygmalion - a most famous play which is based on the Greek mythological character with the same name.
A few themes in his plays
High comedy, a comedy in which he explored religious consciousness and society's complicities: Man and the Superman, John Bulls other Island, Major Barbara, The Doctors Dilemma, Androcles and the Lion, Pygmalion.
However, WW1 was a turning point for him and his works: stopped writing the plays initially instead published pamphlets called 'Common sense About' the war that called both the sides equally culpable. Heartbreak House- spiritual bankruptcy, Back to Methuselah- 5 plays that talks about creative evolution.
Arms and the Man
It is a comedy by Shaw. The title comes from Virgil's Aeneid:Arma virumque cano ("Of arms and the man I sing"). It was published in 1898 as a part of Plays Pleasant volume that also had Candida, You Never Can Tell, and The Man of Destiny and it was his first commercial success. The play displays the uselessness of war and the hypocrisies of human nature.
Summary of ACT - I
The play begins at Night from the bedroom of Raina. The place is Bulgaria and the year is 1885. Her room is decorated with Bulgarian richness and Viennese poorness, but her dress which she is wearing is more expensive than her room's interior decoration. It includes a mantle made of fur. Then her mother Catherine Petkoff enters and asks her the reason to be not sleeping as Rouka who is their servant had told her that she would be sleeping but was found standing in the balcony. Catherine warns her that she might get killed because the war had been fought and won by them-the Bulgarian.
Moreover, she says her fiance Sergius has emerged as the hero in the war. He fought as Bulgarians do and outsmarted the Russian generals. Raine was avoiding engagement with him for one year. She is in remorse that she underestimated his valor. Although they talked about the valor and knighthood, she thought it was due to books and opera they studied and watched. Now he has proven himself as per what the mother has said. She asks her mother to promise not to tell what she thinks about him. Her mother did not like her thinking.
Rouka is a female servant who cares for Raina. She informs both of them that the Servians are being chased across the passes. They might come towards the town. Therefore windows are to be kept shut. After sometime when all people leave except Raina. A man, aged 35 dressed in a Serbian army outfit secretly hid inside the room of Raina. He threatens Raina if she tells anyone about him he will shoot or she will be made naked till the army come to her room. Rouka knocks the door. Raina decides to help him. Rouka tells her that a Serbian is seen climbing up the waterpipe of her building. Raina is asked to dress up. A Russian soldier who is a friend of Sergius has come to look for the enemy soldier. Raina saves him from the Russian soldier by standing in front of the curtain behind which he was hiding. He thanks her and tells that he is Swiss fighting for Serbian. They start a conversation and it was revealed that there is no ammunition in the pistol and during this talk, Raina asks about Sergius. He also said they had only chocolates with them in the war. She also gave him chocolate to have. He says there was one who he compared with Don Quixote-the the someone who is determined to change what is wrong, but who does it in a way that is silly or not practical.
Moreover, he says that the regiment almost committed suicide but got saved because of their pistols which got misfired. The wrong cartridges weres sent to them and they couldn't fire for the next 10 mins.
To confirm Raina shows him the portrait and he says he is the one who charged the windmills like a fool. Raina asks him to go as he has come. Then she introduces herself as pickoffs, the richest and best within Bulgaria. Her father holds the highest command in any Bulgarian in the army. He is a major. Moreover, she says they have a library which is the only one in Bulgaria. Raina then explains that she and her mother follow the notion of a guest being scared as is seen in the opera of Ernani. Raina and Catherine come back to the room to see him after Raina left him to tell her mother, he got asleep. He is not found where he was left, on the ottoman, but Catherine finds him sleeping beside the bed and Raina calls him a poor dear, Catherine is surprised on this naming by her daughter.
Summary of ACT-II
It begins from the garden of Petkoff in the year 1886. Louka and Nicola are engaged in a conversation. They are talking about the secrets of Petkoff's family and one that Louka knows can break the relationship of Raina with Sergius which is upsetting her and Nicola as a senior servant telling her how to manage things with the family to as not to lose the job. Mr. Petkoff arrives and drinks cognac with coffee; talks with his wife Catherine and says war is over and a decree has been signed. Meanwhile, Sergius arrives and tells that he has resigned from the army. Moreover, he talks about the swiss man who hid in Raina's room. When Raina goes to her room to dress up. Sergius starts to flirt with Louka and she says all gentlemen are alike; she hints that what he is doing behind Raina, she is also doing the same. Louka is now victimized by him on the charges that he betrayed the family's trust and as she is bruised by him because of the strong grip, in place of sorry form Sergius, Louka gives her hand to be kissed by him but because she is servant this gesture is looked down upon by Sergius and gets away from her as far as possible. Then it is informed that the swiss man has come to return the coat from Louka. Catherine fears if they found out about him but he was not a stranger to her husband and Sergius. he is asked to join the discussion to resolve the problem of sending three cavalries to Philippopolis and it was finally decided that he will stay with family.
This starts from the library of Petkoff which as described is not a so-called library but literary equipment. It has few books with trophies of war on the wall. It is a comfortable sitting room. All other except the Man is working on the map. Then Petkoff asks for her coat to which Catherine says it is in the blue closet.
Petkoff says it is not there then the betting game starts among them whether the coat will be found or not. Nicola brings the coat. Bluntchli does the work and asks Sergius to hand it over to the concerned parties and asks Petkoff to make sure Sergius talks with them properly. Then a conversation starts between Raina and Buntchli when everybody leaves. In this conversation, it was found that he did never took Raina seriously because he has understood how Raina convinces people.
Moreover, it is found that the coat which was given to him contained a pic. of Raina in the pocket. Louka brings few telegrams for him and these say that his father had died. He had to leave immediately to receive what fortune his father has left for him. He did not seem concerned about his father's death. Louka compares him with Sergius who has a heart. After this, a talk between Louka and Nicola starts where Nicola asks about the style of the strange sleeves. He then says he has got some money which he will give to her if she talked with him like one does to a human being. Louka gets angry on this and they have a heated exchange of words which concluded with Nicola saying he will be by her side always. Then Sergius enters and discusses with Louka. They talk about the concept call brave man. She says you can't be brave because he cannot marry a girl from the inferior race as he thinks a lot about what the public will say, but which she can do. Moreover, she says that Raina loves the Swiss man or Bluntchli and will marry him. Sergius then says he will be that brave man who will marry Louka. He goes and asks for a fight with Blunthcli. He says he will come with machine guns. Raina listens to the conversation and tells that she has seen him flirting with Louka. Sergius tells him that that Bluntchli was with him in the night to which Bluntchli says the circumstances were different as he was there hiding and could kill her if she uttered a word about him. It was found that Louka has told this to him. It was also found that Louka and Nicola are engaged. Bluntchli did not lose his temper throughout the conversation. Louka also joined the conversation. Then Petkoff comes and everybody stops. Petkoff wants his coat to wear and says it is worn by someone who has a bigger shoulder than his. He also found a picture of Raina with the inscription: "Raina, to her Chocolate Cream Soldier—a souvenir.” which Catherine has kept.
It was also found that Nicola and Louka are not married they did so to protect Louka and she will be married into the nobility. Sergius decides to marry Louka and Louka calls Raina by her name which a servant is not allowed to do. When it was found that Raina is 23, Bluntchli proposes her for marriage. It was then told to him that Raina is accustomed to a first-rate stable or a very high standard of living and Sergius has all that she will need. To which Blunchli says he has 200 horses, Sergius had 20 only. Bluntchli then says " I have nine thousand six hundred pairs of sheets and blankets, with two thousand four hundred eider-down quilts. I have ten thousand knives and forks, and the same quantity of dessert spoons. I have six hundred servants. I have six palatial establishments, besides two livery stables, a tea garden, and a private house. I have four medals for distinguished services; I have the rank of an officer and the standing of a gentleman, and I have three native languages. Show me any man in Bulgaria that can offer as much." Raina then asks if he is the Emperor of Switzerland.He says no, he is just a free citizen. Then She says I did not give chocolate to the emperor. Bluntchli then asks to whom she gave it to. To this, she replies to the chocolate cream soldier. Blunthcli then says to Petkoff that he has been a great major and what he should do more with the regiment. He also requests Saranoff to not marry until he comes back. He will return by 5 pm Tuesday fortnight. He leaves with a military bow. Sergius says, What a Man!
Overall, The orientations so developed while he was in London where he listened to debates, lectures and read in Museums; his knowledge of himself get to reflected in his plays. His plays are majestic. Initially, he did not get any response but found success finally. It can build hope in strugglers. His biography is encouraging. He has seen poverty very closely. His pen would not fly beyond the wits.
Hello, students! If you are not sure what is and what are the types of literary devices or figures of speech in English Literature, please read this in one go.
Alamkaara Shastra or Figures of Speech in the English language are like ornaments that decorate the ideas expressed in a literary piece, such as poetry, drama, or fiction. As expounded by the Ancient Indian Sanskrit Seers, the Alamkaara is among the 7 features of Poetry that make a poem different from a general speech. It is also considered as the most important one within the sphere of literary criticism. These 7 characteristics are named as 1. Alamkaara (Embellishment), 2. Rasa (Aesthetic Configuration), 3.Guna (Quality), 4.Dhwani (Suggestion), 5. Riiti (Style), 6.Lakshana (the Characteristics) and 7. Dosha (defect)
Moreover, by observing the Sanskrit literary devices' quality of thoughts in the following examples, it can be concluded that to be of sublime in nature..
These instances are referring to the beauty of a woman's face.
Fig. of Speech Example
1. Samaaeookti : "Your face beautlfully spotted with, black eye and adorned with the light of smile".
2. Smarana : "Having seen the moon I remembered your face".
3. Upama or simile : "Your face is like the moon"
4. Ruupaka or metaphor : "Your moon--face.
5. Sandeeha : "Is this your face or is this the moon".
6. Apahnyuti : "This is the moon and not your face "
7.Upameeyoopama : "The moon is like your face, and your face is like the moon".
8.Ananwaya : "Your face is only like your face".
9.Smarana : "Having seen the moon I remembered your face".
10.Bhraantimaan : " Thinking it to be the moon the chakora(a bird which is supposed to feed on moon beams) flies towards your face ".
11.Ulleekha : "This is the moon, this is the lotus, thus the chakora and the bee fly towards your face ".
12.Utpreeksha : "Is this not verily the moon ?"
13.Tulyayogita : "The moon and the lotus are vanquished by your face".
14.Utpreeksha : "Is this not verily the moon ?"
15.Tulyayogita : "The moon and the lotus are vanquished by your face".
16.Diipaka: "Your face and the moon rejoice in the night".
17.Vyatireeka : "Your face alwaye ahinea, but the moon shines only in the night".
17.Drastaanta : "In the heavens the moon, on earth your face".
18.Prativastuupama : "The moon reigns in heaven, your face reigns on earth".
In addition, in Sanskrit Literature, Prosody or the science of rhythm in poetry is called Chandoviciti, and the meter is called Chanda. Furthermore, in this section, we will get to know some important figures of speech in English Literature with examples for each.
Figures of Speech
This word is derived from the Greek word Euphonos which means pleasant-sounding. The quality of sounding good in the context of poetry in literature is the exact definition of it.
To make a poem sound nice, long vowels; soft and harmonious consonants and semi-vowels like m,r,l,v,f wh, th,s,y, etc., or pleasant consonant or vowels are used. Furthermore, the combination where assonance, alliteration, or consonance or rhyme are mixed to achieve harmony can also make the poem melodious.
For example :
In the lines, "This mounting wave will roll us shoreward soon."
In the afternoon they came unto a land
In which it seemed always afternoon.",
from the poem The Lotos-Eaters' by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, the use of Euphone is demonstrated. In the Ode to Autumn by John Keats the lines, “Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;"... explains the use of it.
Chanda or Meter
There is no need for an introduction of Mahatma Gandhi Ji, but as far as this chapter and book are concerned, a man named Jeramdas, who was one of his fellow-prisoners in Yerwada Jail, insisted him to write his autobiography. It was first written in Gujrati language and sold for Rs 1/-. The English translation came later and was expensive. In this section, we will be summarizing chapter 15th of the book- My Experiments with Truth which is written by the Mahatma himself.
The title of the chapter is Playing the English Gentleman. In this chapter, he is describing his life in London where he went to become a barrister. He expounds that his friends did not like him to be a vegetarian. They argue that if he does not eat meat, he will remain duffer and weak; he will not be accepted by English society. He was taken to a posh restaurant and offered soup to have but he hesitated because he was not sure whether it was veg or non-veg.
Mahatma Gandhi Ji got concerned with his friend's wishes and started learning French, elocution, and dance so that he can become an English gentleman, but couldn't succeed in any of these so he recalled a fable and went to get coached. He started learning the violin so that he could understand western music that might help him in dance. One of his coaches, Mr. Bell suggested some books for elocution. Gandhiji says, Mr. Bell rang the bell in his mind and opened the gates for rationale. Gandhiji thought, knowing all these three would not help him in any way because he has come here to become a lawyer; his character should make him a gentleman.
Moreover, he can learn the violin in India also; there is no need for elocution because he is not going to stay in London for a lifetime.
Similarly, dancing is not going to make him a gentleman. Finally, he writes a letter apologizing for not continuing lessons to all his teachers, but he went to his violin teacher personally to tell this. She was friendly so he told the thoughts running in his mind. She encouraged him. Gandhiji kept what he learned for some months and even years but finally became a student.
Overall, this short extract from the life of Gandhi Ji, explains how he tackles the ideologies of western society that were different from the cultures to which he belonged. Furthermore, how he manages his focus.