Tenses generally relate to Verbs in grammar that describe the time in a sentence. Furthermore, a sentence is a group of words that essentially should sit between two full stops and make complete sense.
To start, there are three tenses - namely Present, Past, and Future. Since all these tenses are further classified, let's learn their types in detail.
Firstly, Present Tense has 4 types -
1.Simple Present/ Present Indefinite
We use it when the action is happening right now or when it happens regularly.
e.g. She is on Facebook, She drinks tea, I am sorry to hear that Sheetal is sick.
2. Present Continuous
It can be used to convey any action or condition that is happening frequently, right now, or maybe ongoing.
E.g. She is waiting outside the restaurant,
She is standing with the notepad and a pencil behind her ear.
Formula: To Be [Am, Is, Are] + Verb [Present Participle]
3. Present Perfect
It is used to convey the idea that has started in the past and is continued at the present time, but we cannot use it to show a specific time. e.g. I have eaten all the cakes this morning.
formula [have/has + the past participle.]
Examples, I have walked on this street before, She has completed all her tasks.
4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense :
It is used to convey an idea that is starting in the past and is continuing in the present. E.g. She has been reading My Experiment with truth for a month now. It is not incompatible with some verbs such as owning and late.
Formula : has/have been + the present participle (root + -ing).
Secondly, Past Tense has also four types.
1. Simple Past: It is used to talk about things that existed or happened before now. It emphasizes that action is finished. e.g. She entered the poetry writing competition.
It is used to talk about events that have completed sometime before in the past. When there is a need to talk about some point in the past and want to refer to an event that happened even earlier, it is used. Furthermore, this is clearer and more specific as compared to simple past and when making conditions. Do not use it when you are not describing the sequence of events.
e.g. If I had a chance, I would have cleaned the floor.
It was found that she had used washable paint.
I had cleaned the floor.
formula : had + [past participle]
3.Past continuous Tense:
It refers to a state or continuing action that was happening at some point in the past. It is often used to show conditions that existed in the past.
e.g. The sun was not shining every day that summer.
It can be used to describe something that happened at a precise time in the past.
e.g. At 8 o'clock, she was eating fruits.
For habitual action.
e.g. She was constantly murmuring in the class in those days.
It can be used to denote something that was happening continuously in the past and interrupted by another action.
e.g. He was laughing when the teacher came.
4. Past Perfect Continuous:
It indicates something that has started in the past, continued in the past, and ended at a defined point in the past. Since, for, before and when may be used.
e.g. She had been working 12 hours a day before she fell ill.
Formula: had been + the verb’s present participle (root + -ing).
Lastly,Future Tense has the following types.
1. Simple Future:
It is used to talk about things that have not happened yet or to talk about conditions or actions that started in the future and ended there only. e.g. She will eat fruits.
If all goes well, she will study.
Formula : will + [root form of verb].
'is going to' makes the same sense, but used in speech and casual writing.
e.g. She is going to Delhi tomorrow.
2. Future Perfect :
It is used to describe some action that will be completed before some other point in the future or between now and some point in the future. The action must have a deadline, if not then use simple future tense.
e.g. She will leave. She will have left.
Formula : will have + [past participle].
3. Future Continuous Tense:
It indicates something will happen in the future and continued for an expected length of time.
e.g. At 5 o'clock, she will be flying to London.
This is used only with action verbs that describe activities like swimming, thinking, seeing, etc., and not with stative verbs, that describe states of existence e.g. being, seeming and knowing, etc..
Formula : will + be + the present participle (the root verb + -ing).
4. Future Perfect Continuous :
It is used to describe actions that will continue until a point in the future. Here, we generally project forward in time and look back at the duration of that activity by sense. The activity can begin in the past, present, and future. Non-action verbs are not used here.
e.g. When I turn 31, I will have been playing the piano for forty years.
In December, she will have been playing in my team for five years.
Formula : will + have + been + the verb’s present participle (verb root + -ing).
In English, there are broadly 8 parts of speech. It also can be called classes of words. Moreover, the world in which we live has n number of objects. These all would have three things in common whether tangible or intangible and living and non-living that are attributes, action, and some state. These classes of words majorly fall among the three only. In this section, we will go through the definitions and examples of each.
It refers to people, places, and things, but it can also include intangible things and abstract ideas. For example, Ritiesh is a kind man, Kindness is a jewel, Schools are closed today, etc..
These are words that replace nouns. For example, he/she/it/they/we. It requires antecedents so that there is no confusion.
These are expressive words that add details to a sentence and can give valuable information. It only works with nouns. For example, Please buy a blue pen.
It modifies or describes a noun, an adjective, and another adverb or a whole sentence sometimes. It often ends in 'ly' but there are exceptions. E.g. Fortunately, she had won the competition.
These words show the action or what the subject of the sentence is going to do. For example, She runs on the railway track for no reason.
It tells the coordinates in times-space, direction, time, and location. For example, the cat is sitting on the table.
These words connect concepts, parts of sentences, or clauses.
For example, She went to Delhi but did not attend the seminar.
These words are used to convey the utmost emotions or to highlight generally when speaking. For example, Wow!, Hey!, Yuck!, and Yay!, etc..